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Burns and Scalds, First Aid and Treatment

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Burns and Scalds

Due to high exposure to heat, the skin and internal organs of the body can get damage. This is the Burns and Scalds condition. In such a situation, it is essential to provide basic first aid during the hospitalization. Otherwise, excessive heat can cause severe damage, such as tissue damage and body mutations.

Types of burns…

  • Dry burns- This can happen by fire, gas frictions, burnt metals, or some times intense sunburns.
  • Chemical burns- This can happen from constricted acids or bases.
  • Electrical burns- This can happen from current leakage from high energy electric current or lightning.
  • Radiation burns- This occurs when the body exposures to sudden or regular radiation. This can cause severe damages.
  • Moist burns- This can happen from hot water, steam, hot oils. This is called scalds.

There are two main classifications of burns and scalds.

  1. Extent of burn
  2. Depth of burn

Extent of burn

This defines the percentage that the body has burnt. The measurement that uses for this is called Rules of Nines. Here each main part of the body surface is given 9% and then calculates the burnt area as a percentage from it and comes to a conclusion.
For example, if a hand gets burnt, it can conclude that 9% of the body has burnt. If burned along with the chest and abdominal area, it can conclude that 18% of the body has burnt.
According to Nine Rules, if the burnt percentage exceeds 30%, it is considered a severe burn. If an adult burns more than 15% or a child burns more than 10%, they must be hospitalized for further treatments immediately.

Other than this rule, a simple measuring unit also uses to determine the extent of the burn. It is your palm. The area we can cover the surface of the body by the palm is considered as 1%.

Depth of burn

Depth of burn, the second classification of burns and Scalds ranked into three types according to the degree.

First-degree burn
• Only the skin get reddish
• Little pain
• Feels pain when it is touched

Second-degree burn
• Other than reddish skin blisters forming
• Severe pain
• Damage to the skin, deep partial injury

Third-degree burn
• Skin gets altogether injured
• Sometimes does not feel pain as skin and tissues get destroyed
• Nerves get damaged
• Sometimes can burn up to bones

It is essential to give special attention to the burnt parts of the body when a depth of burn. Burns that happened in the face, eyes, legs, main bones, and external genital areas are known as severe burns.

Why should give first aid in a burns and scales case?

  • To reduce inflammations
  • To give liquids to control dehydration
  • To treat for mental shock
  • To give medication

First aid for burns and scalds

First degree burn

  1. The burnt area should wet with flowing cool water for 10-15 minutes.
  2. You can use a dry and clean bandage if needed.

Second degree burn

  1. Burnt areas should dip into the cool water till the pain reduce.
  2. Softly clean the area by a cooled piece of clothing.
  3. Then put a clean bandage.
  4. Do not harm for blisters.
  5. Do not use medical liquids of oiled bandages.
  6. If the hands or legs burned, keep them raised to streamline the blood flow.

Third degree burn

  1. Avoid touching the burnt areas.
  2. Do not remove clothes if they stick to the body.
  3. Cover the burnt area from sterilized or cleaned bandages.
  4. If hands get burnt, they should keep raised higher than the patient’s heart.
  5. If legs get burnt, they should also keep raised and do not allow to walk
  6. If the face burned, you should focus on whether he or she has respiratory problems.
  7. Body parts that are burnt very severely, they should not dip into the cool water.
  8. Mediatory should be given as soon as possible for severely burnt patients.
  9. Cover the burned person from the dust field and germs as much as possible.
  10. If it’s late got the support of the first aider or late more than four hours for medication, the patient can be fed by low volume liquids little by little.

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