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Diabetes: Definition, Diagnosis, Treatments

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Diabetes

Normal blood sugar concentration range between 70- 110mg/dL. When the blood sugar level exceeds more than 180mg/dL known as Diabetes Mellitus. However, if you are a diabetic patient, blood glucose levels you should keep at each stage may vary depending on your doctor’s advice. This is a chronic disease.
Typically starch in our food converts into glucose in our digestive system and absorbs into the blood. This glucose is taken up by cells in our body and use as energy for active processes in our body cells. Glucose needs insulin hormones which synthesized in pancreases to enter into the cells.

Types of Diabetes Mellitus

There are two main types.

1) Type 1 Diabetes – Insulin-dependent
2) Type 2 Diabetes – Non-insulin dependent

Type 1 diabetes is common in small children, and type 2 can be seen in younger and adults. Other than this, there is another type called Gestational diabetes, which can found during pregnancy period. After the delivery, this type gets cured, but these ladies can be caught for type 2 diabetes mellitus lately.
Type 2 is the most common. The main reason for type 2 diabetes mellitus is the insulin resistance by cells or poor insulin synthesis in the body.

How can the blood glucose level exceed the normal range?

There are three primary reasons for this.

  • The inability of the pancreas to secrete enough insulin that the body needs.
  • Inability to synthesize insulin due to weakening or damage of pancreatic cells.
  • Glucose remains in the blood due to body cells resist to glucose.

How can excess sugar level harm to the body?

Remaining glucose in the blood without entering the cells causes two significant problems.

1) It can harm your body organs such as kidneys, nerves, heart, and eyes, etc. due to the long time excess blood sugar level.
2) Weight decrease and become tired quickly because of the lack of glucose needed by the cells to produce energy, although you eat enough food.

Diabetes warning signs

Symptoms may show up over time, and some of them can appear immediately.

  • Drying mouth
  • increased thirst
  • Fatigue
  • Frequent urination
  • Blurred vision
  • Dry skin
  • headache
  • Wounds don’t heal quickly

Diagnosis

One or more of the above warning signs may appear if you have diabetes.

Tests to diagnose diabetes.

  • Oral glucose tolerance (OGTT) – This test measures the extent and manner of glucose the body cells absorb after consuming a certain amount of sugar.
  • Fasting plasma glucose (FPG)You must spend a fasting period for at least 8 hours before this test. If fasting blood glucose exceeds 126 mg / dL, it is considered a medical condition.
  • A1CThis test is to check pre-diabetic conditions.
  • Random plasma glucose testA1C checks the amount of glucose circulating in the blood, does not require fasting. In the test, levels higher than 200 mg/dl (or equal), it’s a medical condition.

Treatments

There are several recommended treatments for each type of diabetes. Although there are pharmaceutical treatments for this, following the right diet is essential. For example, you should limit foods with high carbs and over-processed, low-fiber foods. Whatever your type of diabetes, you should definitely do this because there is a direct relationship between diabetes and food.

If someone has type 1 diabetes need to continually take insulin from outside because their body doesn’t produce insulin.

There is no specific treatment or medication recommended for Type 2. The method, medicines, and the doses are prescribed depending on how patient work to control blood sugar.

The following also important in type 2 condition:

  • Exercising according to the correct procedure.
  • Losing weight if you are obese.
  • Following the right diet.

Some ayurvedic treatments using various herbal remedies in South Asian countries have also shown promising results for diabetes (Trusted source). The specialty is there are no side effects of treatments that use natural ingredients.

Diabetes

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